Bounding the Land

The city of Zanesville was first founded by Colonel Ebenezer Zane when he was commissioned by the U.S. Congress to form a trail through the dense forests of Ohio and to set up ferry services at any river crossings he encountered. This trail became known as Zane’s Trace and it became the travel route for thousands of settlers into Ohio.

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Depicted above is the path made by Ebenezer Zane known as Zane’s Trace. Made mostly from old Indian trails, the path spanned just over 230 miles (370 km) and helped establish several communities that still exist today.

Expanding on the topic of ferry services, Ebenezer Zane passed through Zanesville and created a ferry service there at the crossing of the Muskingum and Licking Rivers. It was there that the city of Zanesville came to exist and even derived its name from the man who created the path leading to it (Ebenezer Zane – Zanesville). The city became mostly settled by migrants from Pennsylvania, Virginia, New York, Connecticut and Maryland. People were now able to travel with a horse or small wagon down the trail into the new frontier land known as the Northwest Territory. This trail, however, came after the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, a law deciding the fate of the Northwest Territory taken from the British at the end of the Revolutionary War.

The Confederation Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance on July 13, 1787. Officially titled “An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States North West of the River Ohio,” this ordinance established how these new territories in the Northwest Territory could become states through three stages of government.The first stage dealt with Congress being responsible for choosing the original leaders of the territory. There would be a governor, a secretary, and three judges. The governor and judges would choose existing states’ laws on which to base their territorial legal code. The governor would have power over the militia and Native Americans matters. He also could select law enforcement officials and judges for the lower courts. Congress could reject any law that came to pass in the territories and each of the five members of this kind of “commission” were to be large landowners of the state they planned to create.

The second stage of the statehood creation process set by the Northwest Ordinance is based on whether or not the territory has reached 5,000 free residents. The territory was then allowed to elect a legislature consisting of a legislative council and a house of representatives. Every legislator had to be an adult male who owned at least 200 acres of land while each legislative council member had to be an adult white male who owned 500 or more acres of land. The right to vote was only given to those who were adult males owning 50 or more acres of land.

In the final stage of the statehood process, a territory could apply for statehood if they had 60,000 or more residents. After reaching this mark, the people created a state constitution after convening in a constitutional convention. This constitution would be submitted by the state to the federal government for approval. Once approved, the territory would become a state with one condition; no state created from the Northwest Ordinance could allow slavery. Along these guidelines, Ohio became the seventeenth state to join the United States and the first of the Northwest Territory (became the Indiana Territory on March 1, 1803, the same day Ohio became a state).

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Shown above is the Northwest Territory with the modern state boundaries. Only up to 5 states were allowed by the Northwest Ordinance to form from this area. Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin all became states at their own pace from this territory. Part of Minnesota comes from the Northwest Territory but most of it lies to the west of the Mississippi River.

The Northwest Ordinance did not only establish statehood but also established how the land should be distributed, surveyed and bound. Much of the land that was to become Ohio was set to be military reserves or congressional lands. Specifically, there were 15 sections that Ohio was broken up into by Congress, military reserves and purchases made by conglomerate of people (17 in total – if you count the French Grant, which is commonly identified as part of Congress lands East of the Scioto River, and the Firelands, which is a part of the Connecticut Reserve).

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The map above shows the lands of Ohio as they were distributed among states and people. A comprehensive list includes: the Toledo Strip, Between the Miamis, Symmes’ Purchase, Connecticut Military Reserve, Virginia Military District, Ohio Company Purchase, Donation Tract, Seven Ranges, U.S. Military District, Refugee Tract, and 5 plots of Congress Lands.

The bounding of the land by such districts allowed the federal government, as well as several state governments, to pay off the military veterans from the Revolutionary War using land. The Symmes’ Purchase was bought by a conglomerate of people who wanted to buy land in Ohio to start anew just as the Ohio Company had bought the land in southern Ohio to start new communities and make money. The U.S Military district was used to pay off those veterans that had served in the Continental Army in the war while the Connecticut Reserve was used to appease people who lost everything in the war, whether they were a veteran or a civilian who lost their town in the war.

The setup, created by the Public Land Survey System, allowed for even distribution of lands into square sets of land. The land was divided into townships measuring 6 square miles (6 x 6). These townships were broke down into 36 sections measuring 1 square mile (1 x 1), or 640 acres. This measurement was reduced even further, going from “half lots” (320 acres) all the way down to “quarter-quarter lots” (40 acres).This is demonstrated below in the map depicting the first area survey known as The Seven Ranges.

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Ohio, being the closest to the original thirteen colonies and being the easiest to access, was the natural choice to first start the Public Land Survey System created by the Northwest Ordinance. The majority of Ohio townships were created through this method with some being based on metes and bounds depending on natural landscapes (such as rivers, lakes, or mountainous areas).  Certain sections of the townships became reserved for certain ordained needs set by the government. For example, section 16 in each township was reserved for the support of public schools, making this the first federal aid to education (predating the Constitution). The 88 counties of Ohio were created using this method  and it became a staple for every county created in each state to come thereafter.

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Muskingum County, as shown above, is separated into 25 townships with some being sectioned in perfect squares and others being sectioned using metes and bounds. This county has some counties that are bounded by the old method of forming townships, metes and bounds, because of the Muskingum River that runs directly through the county. This shows how the landscape and waterways of the nation can affect how people create their townships and establish boundaries. The state of Ohio even has the southern boundary based on the Ohio River. Rivers, lakes and mountains act as natural boundaries between townships, counties, states, and even countries. The Muskingum County, however, was split at one point between the U.S. Military District and the Congress Lands East of the Scioto River. This split naturally occurred before the founding of the modern day county but cannot be overlooked as it could indicate a difference in culture between the northern half of the county compared to the southern half of the county.

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Shown above is the detailing of the territorial separation of Ohio surrounding the area of Muskingum County and Zanesville. This shows the U.S. Military District and the Congress Lands East of the Scioto River

Zanesville, as fate would have it, lies on the southern border of the United States Military District and the northern border of the Congress Lands East of the Scioto River. The Muskingum County, as aforementioned, is split in half with the northern half being in the U.S. Military District and the southern half being in the Congress Lands. The split? Exactly where Zanesville lies. The city was developed after these territorial purchases were made so it is hard to say whether or not the city was formed as a kind of mediator between the two sections or if it was formed as a hub of trade because of early use of canals as transport. This seemed like a strange development in relation to other cities because not many others are founded on the border of two different controlling groups with different purposes (military payment and congressional sale).

 

 

Sources:

U.S. Military District, Ohio

John Kilbourne – Public Lands

Northwest Ordinance – OHC

American History – Northwest Ordinance Effects

Auditor of State of Ohio – Dave Yost

Primary Documents in American History

Brittanica – Northwest Ordinance

Zanesville History

Colonel Ebenezer Zane

Muskingum County – Zanesville

Zane’s Trace – Touring Ohio

 

Picture Sources:

Zane’s Trace Map

Northwest Territory Map

Congress Lands East of the Scioto River Map

Township Map

Muskingum Township Map

Zanesville Map

Detailed Territorial District Map

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Native Americans near Zanesville

Reaching back to around 1,000 B.C., the Archaic Native Americans that had inhabited the lands near Zanesville, Ohio had begun to dissipate. These people had been around for thousands of years (since as early as around 7,000 B.C.) and are characterized by their hunter-gatherer society. Unlike the PaleoIndians before them (11,000 B.C. – around 7,000), the Archaic Natives developed small villages and hunted smaller game (relative to the mastodon and the mammoth that were commonly hunted by the PaleoIndians) such as deer, bear, and wild birds. A feature of the Archaic lifestyle that was not prevalent in the PaleoIndian lifestyle was the addition of fishing. It is likely that the people of the PaleoIndian era did fish a little but the Archaic people implemented fishing as a part of their lives. Fishing during the Ice Age for the PaleoIndians would have been nearly impossible due to the lack of stationary life for this early Indian group.

The Archaic people grew to be more developed than the PaleoIndians, which may be the reason they survived the changes resulting from the end of the Ice Age while the PaleoIndians disappeared. The use of fire became evident in the era during the Archaic people because of the discovery of charcoal at the excavated campsites. The developmental capabilities of these people ultimately led to what can be known as the Adena and the Hopewell people around 900 B.C. The Hopewell were named such because the person who first uncovered the remains of these people on his lands was Captain M.C. Hopewell.

These people came about because they adapted their lifestyle to become more sedentary than their predecessors. These peoples developed agriculture, basing most of their crops around the development of maize, or corn. Adena and Hopewell people created larger villages and built permanent homes mostly in river valleys such as the Muskingum or Licking Rivers (in the case of the Hopewell people).

Copyright: dieKLEINERT.de / Helmut Weiss

The picture above shows the housing of the Adena culture while the below picture shows the housing of the Hopewell peoples. The homes are structurally similar which symbolizes that the cultures were close to each other but also had different cultural values.

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The Hopewell people, based around the Zanesville area, built more basic homes called wigwams that did not take too much work to create while the Adena created a home that was more structurally sound. This could be because the Hopewell experienced a much different lifestyle than their compatriots of the period. The Hopewell did develop much more than housing during their time in Ohio. They built mounds and made walls of earth in geometric forms such as circles or octagons which suggested that they were advanced enough to develop surveying skills. This development in the Hopewell showed how advanced the people were becoming in the Ohio region despite having no contact with the European world. However, the Hopewell people and the Adena faded from existence around 600 B.C. and no other advanced peoples inhabited the Ohio region until the 1600s.

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The above map shows what the distribution of Ohio tribes looked like in 1648. This map can show what the Ohio region looked like before 1655 when the Iroquois drove away the uncivilized ancient tribes that inhabited the northern area (Fort Ancients and the Erie). These other tribes shown on the map (Shawnees, Miami, Wyandot and Lenape) arrived in the years following the evacuation of the previous tribes.

After the Iroquois arrived in 1655, the tribes from the East Coast also began to arrive. The Lenape, Shawnee, Mingo, and the Wyandot all began to come to Ohio because of the Europeans continually driving them out of their territories outside the Ohio region. The Lenape get their Anglicized name, Delaware, from the Europeans as they had once inhabited the area near the Delaware River, had settled near the Zanesville area by the Muskingum and Licking Rivers. This group of Indians referred to themselves as the Lenape, or Lenilenape, had settled around the area most likely because it was similar to the Delaware River valley they had previously inhabited. The Zanesville area was characterized by game such as deer and other animals to hunt because of the water source. Plentiful trees as sources of wood and good land for gardens also helped determine the Zanesville area as a settlement for the Lenape as they tried to get comfortable in their new home.

Most of the villages of the Lenape are made up of only about 25 to 50 people but some could be up to 200 or 300 people. Familial ties usually determined the size of the village and were the basis of social life in the villages. Stealing was never even contemplated in these villages as the belief was that the land belonged to everyone and there was no hoarding of possessions because the community always came before the individual. Chiefs reached their position through merit and battle experience and were always male. The gender roles in this society were based on hunting and gathering just as the Indian tribes before them. The women gathered food and tended gardens while the men hunted and learned woodcrafting. Stone tools developed from flint and quartz became the staple for the Lenape as they did not really develop beyond these tools until Europeans began to arrive in the Ohio region more frequently. The Muskingum and Licking Rivers enabled the Lenape to travel and plant crops as well as hunt game that came to the rivers for water. The Zanesville area was perfect for the people of the Lenape tribe.

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Shown above is a picture of what a Lenape village might have looked like based on collected artifacts and knowledge given to us by Europeans who encountered these Indians as they pushed westward.

The struggles by the British and the French over control of Ohio resulted in the fragmentation of many tribes of Indians and the inevitable result of the Native American elimination from the Ohio region. They were either killed, died from disease, or driven westward across the Mississippi in order for the Europeans to take the frontier known as Ohio and make it a state in 1803. There are no current reservations for Indian tribes today in Ohio but what remains of them mostly is the mounds, the walls of earth and the tools that were buried ranging from various dates in history (such as the walls of Fort Ancient built by the Hopewell).

 

Sources:

http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Delaware_Indians

http://touringohio.com/history/delaware.html

http://www.rrcs.org/Downloads/Ohios%20historic%20Indians%2038%20pages.pdf

https://ohioauditor.gov/publications/AlongTheOhioTrail.pdf

http://www.lenapelifeways.org/lenape1.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lenape#History

http://www.lenapelifeways.org/lenape2.htm#shelters

 

Picture Sources:

http://www.brooklineconnection.com/history/Facts/Indians.html

http://www.ramweb.org/adena-culture.html

http://www.lenapelifeways.org/lenape1.htm